Tuesday, 2 November 2004
Both Transcendent and Immanent
By Noor al-Deen
universe is, in essence, a book that attests to the existence of Allah.
importance to the Islamic creed is a firm belief in Allah (God)
that accords with the precepts set in the Qur'an and Sunnah. While the
majority of humanity believes in an absolute, the Islamic definition of God
is precise and unique, and not subject to personal revisions. In other
words, Allah is as He is, and our belief in His reality benefits no one but
With this in mind, we have endeavored to
define the Islamic understanding of Allah in a candid, albeit simple,
Allah is One, without any partners. He has no
sharers in His essence, attributes, actions, or rulings. He is the sole
Creator of all that exists, has existed, and will ever exist. Everything
other than Him is His creation - that is, a contingent being that came into
existence after it did not previously exist.
He alone controls all events, causes, and
effects, and no power exists independently of His power. Nothing happens
outside of His will, neither before He willed it, nor after He willed it,
neither more than what He willed, nor less than what He willed.
There is nothing like Him, and it is
impossible to imagine or conceive Him. He is not qualified by the laws of
His creation. He is not encompassed by direction or distance. Allah existed
as He has always been before the creation of time and space.
He not only created time and space, but He is transcendentally beyond them,
such that He cannot be "in" a place, He cannot be "everywhere," and He
cannot be "nowhere."
Allah is the eternally-existing, necessary
first cause. Unlike His creation, which is a possible existent subject to
nonbeing, beginning, and ending, Allah has no beginning and He will never
perish or come to an end. Scholars have also explained, "Bringing creation
into existence did not add anything to His attributes that was not already
He is the Sustainer of everything, directly
sustaining every instant of the existence of all things. He alone gives life
and He alone gives death, and He will re-create and resurrect living
rational beings for judgment and retribution just as He created them the
first time. Nothing is difficult for Him.
His omnipotence encompasses all things
intrinsically possible. He cannot terminate His own existence, for "the
divine nature necessarily entails the divine perfections, of which being is
one. It is impossible that Allah could cease to have this perfection or any
other, for otherwise He would not be God."
Similarly, it is impossible for created things to contravene the knowledge
or speech of Allah, for by being connected with either of these two divine
attributes, it has become contingently necessary for any created thing to
conform and submit.
His knowledge encompasses all things. It is
not subject to change or increase; it is not based on time or chronology. He
knew the actions and eternal abodes of all of humanity before its creation,
and its actual existence and conformity to Allah's pre-temporal knowledge
neither increased nor benefited Him.
He sees all events and things in a manner
wholly unlike our means of seeing things. His sight does not depend on
distance, light, and appendages. Likewise, He hears all events and things
with a hearing that transcends sound waves, volume, tone, and pitch.
Allah is the source of all benefit and harm.
If all of humanity gathered together with the sole intention of benefiting
or harming a single person, it would be absolutely powerless to do so save
by the will and permission of Allah.
In a similar vein, Allah alone guides to His
single, eternal truth, and He likewise leads astray. All good works done by
a person are not a consequence of his own knowledge, effort, or piety, but
rather they issue from a divinely-bestowed ability that Allah grants to whom
It should be noted at this point that while
the masculine pronoun "He" is used in both Arabic and English to denote
Allah, He is nonetheless transcendentally beyond any gender. Elucidating
this phenomenon, T.J. Winter, a British academic, writes the following:
God is simply Allah, the God; never Father.
The divine is referred to by the masculine pronoun: Allah is He (huwa);
but the grammarians and exegetes concur that this is not even allegoric:
Arabic has no neuter, and the use of the masculine is normal in Arabic for
The Signs of Allah
The first "book" that attests to the existence
of Allah is creation itself. As such, a wise man has said, "Praise be to God
Who has proven His existence through His creation, proven His eternality
through the origination of His creation, and proven His incomparability
through the uniformity of His creation."
The universe is, in essence, a book, though
few people are truly able to read it. With a printed book, a person may
become obsessed with the font style, binding, paper quality, and other
superficial features, while he never learns or takes the time to read the
actual message contained therein. Similarly, most people confine their
attention to the externalities of the world, such as the relationship
between cause and effect, and they never perceive the underlying message of
creation, namely, that behind it lays a single, all-wise, all-powerful
Regarding the manifest signs of Allah all
around us, a knowledgeable British convert to Islam writes the following:
We cannot live, for instance, without daily
rest; both the human body and the human mind are constructed to need it.
This fact is not in itself surprising, but what is surprising is that the
solar system collaborates with us in our human frailty and provides us with
a day and a night exactly suited to our needs. Man cannot claim to have
compelled or persuaded the solar system to do so; nor can the solar system
claim to have modeled human physical and mental energy to conform to its own
movements. Both man and the solar system are evidently linked in a total
organization in which man is the beneficiary; the organizer of these
inexplicable concordances can only be a Supreme Controller of the universe
and mankind. Sweet water is a necessary condition of human existence; it is
equally necessary for those plants which produce man's staple foods, which
themselves depend on each other. If sea water were to invade our rivers and
wells or rain down from the sky, is there any doubt that we should all die
of hunger and thirst in a few days and the whole world become an empty
desert? Yet sea water is only held back by an invisible barrier over which
we have no control and the sun and the clouds co-operate in order to
desalinate our water for us and so give us life.
By reflecting upon the innumerable miracles
within the cosmos around us through the use of the intellect that has been
gifted to us, every human being of sound mind and senses is able to attain a
basic realization of the existence of a single, omnipotent God. Through His
Mercy and Guidance in the form of prophets and revealed texts,
a person's realization may ultimately grow into gnosis of the true nature of
Allah and His Oneness, a concept know in Islam as Tawheed.
artistic rendering of ?the word Allah.?
In order to provide a better understanding of
Islamic Tawheed, we have provided a description of Allah and some of
His attributes as it appears in a famous, classical text of Islamic
knowledge. The following
is an original translation of excerpts from Revival of the Religious
Sciences by Imam Abu Hamid al-Ghazali
Allah is singular in His essence with no
partner, Unique with no equivalent, Absolute, no opposite has He, Alone
without peer. He is beginningless without predecessor, perpetual of being
without end, singularly sustaining everything without stop. He is not victim
to termination or cessation, or to the elapsing of spans or the passing of
interims. Rather He is the First and the Last; the Outward and the Inward -
and He has knowledge of everything.
He is not a body with form, nor is He a
confined or quantifiable substance. He does not resemble bodies in
quantifiably or divisibility. Rather He resembles nothing existent, nor does
anything existent resemble Him. There is absolutely nothing like Him, nor is
He like anything.
No measure confines Him, no space contains
Him, no direction encompasses Him, nor do the heavens surround Him.
He is above everything until the farthest
reaches of the stars - an above-ness that does not increase His nearness to
the heavens; rather He is exalted in degree above the heavens to the same
extent that He is exalted in degree above the depths of the earth.
Notwithstanding, He is near to all existence, and He is nearer to the
bondsman than his jugular vein. His nearness, however, no more resembles the
nearness of bodies one to another than His essence resembles the essences of
He is too sublime that space should encompass
Him, as He is too hallowed that time should restrict Him. Rather He was,
before He created time and space, and He is now as He was always. He is
separate from His creation by His attributes. He is transcendentally holier
than to be subject to change and movement. Rather He remains in His
qualities of absolute majesty, not subject to abating, and in His qualities
of perfection with no need of increase.
He is Living, Almighty, Irresistible,
Overpowering; deficiency does not affect Him nor does incapacity. "No
slumber can seize Him nor sleep."
Extinction and death do not counteract Him. He is possessed of absolute
dominion, sovereignty, and grandeur; to Him is creation and command.
He is matchless in creating and beginning,
solitary in causing existence and originating. He creates all beings and
their acts, decrees their sustenance and spans. Nothing possible is outside
His grasp, and He is never detached from the absolute governing of all
affairs. His abilities cannot be enumerated, and His knowledge is boundless.
conviction in Allah's existence and in His actual relationship with
every one of us comes only with His mercy and guidance.
He knows all things knowable, encompassing all
that transpires between the depths of the earths to the ends of the
universe. Nothing of an atom's weight in the earth and the heavens escapes
His Knowledge; rather He knows the creeping of a black ant across a
soundless stone on a lightless night. He knows the movement of the particles
on a windy day. He knows the hidden and what is beyond. He presides over the
thoughts of the conscience, the movements of the cerebrations, and the
recondite subtleties of the psyche, with a beginningless, eternal Knowledge
that has been with Him forever.
He is the willer of all that exists, and He is
the director of all that occurs. Nothing occurs in the seen or unseen world,
be it minimal or abundant, small or large, good or evil, beneficial or
harmful, of belief or disbelief, knowledge or ignorance, triumph or ruin,
increase or decrease, obedience or defiance, except by His decree,
foreordainment, command, and volition. What He wills is, and what He does
not will is not.
A servant has no escape from disobeying Him
except through His conferred success and mercy; he has no power to obey Him
except through His assistance and will. If all of mankind united together to
move or retard a single atom in the universe without His will and volition,
they would be unable to do so.
He hears and He sees. No audible thing,
however faint, escapes His hearing, and no visible thing, however minute, is
hidden from His sight. Distance does not impede His hearing and darkness
does not obstruct His seeing. His attributes do not resemble the attributes
of the creation to the same extent that His essence does not resemble the
essences of creation.
Everything other than Him is an originated
thing that He created by His power from nothingness, since He existed in
eternity alone and there was nothing whatsoever with Him. He originated
creation thereafter as a manifestation of His power and as a realization of
His preceding Will, not because He had any need of it.
He is Magnanimous in creating and in imposing
obligations upon His creation; He is not compelled to do it by necessity. He
is Gracious in beneficence and reform, though not through any need.
Munificence and Kindness, Beneficence and Grace are His. He rewards His
believing worshipers for their acts of obedience according to generosity and
encouragement rather than according to their merit and obligation, for there
is no obligation upon Him in any deed towards anyone. Tyranny is
inconceivable in Him, for there is no right upon Him towards anyone.
While these are the Islamic beliefs on Allah
in written form, it must be noted that a person is not accountable for his
intellectual understanding of them, but rather he is responsible for truly
incorporating them in his heart. True conviction in Allah's existence and in
His actual relationship with every one of us comes only with His mercy and
guidance. As such, Muslims ask Allah in every prayer for guidance unto His
Posted by cmasq8
at 12:47 AM
Tuesday, 30 March 2004
Few nations have been transformed as dramatically as Kuwait, a modern-day city-state blessed with one tenth of the world's known oil reserves. In 1934 its population was 75,000, and though it did not export its own petroleum until the 1950s, it began to prosper at this date by providing a port for the shipping of Iranian and Iraqi oil. After that, both the wealth and population skyrocketed; so many foreign workers were allowed in that the Kuwaitis soon found themselves a minority in their own country. By 1990, the population stood at 2.1 million, less than half of which were Kuwaiti citizens. Many of the foreigners were classified as bidun (Arabic for "without"), because they are not citizens of any country.
In June 1961, the emir of Kuwait's ruling Sabah family, Sheikh Abdullah, felt confident enough to ask the British for independence. Britain granted it, and Iraq's General Kassem immediately laid claim to the country, arguing that Kuwait was a part of southern Iraq that had been illegally separated at the turn of the century. This meant that although Kuwait had enough money to stand on its own, it did not have the armed forces needed for defense. The emir had to ask British forces to stay for two months, until the Arab League could send a peacekeeping force to take their place. Iraq replied by blocking Kuwait's entry the first time it applied to join the United Nations.
Six months later, in a move to promote national unity, the emir made the bold step of establishing the first constitutional monarchy in the Persian Gulf region. He allowed elections for a constituent assembly, and the assembly wrote a constitution that guaranteed the Sabah family's domination but allowed the people a role in government. The same year saw the establishment of the Kuwait Fund for Arab Development, an organization that lent money for various development projects, ranging from enlarging Beirut's port to modernizing Tunisian agriculture and the Sudanese railway system. Similar foundations had existed in the West for decades, but this was the first in the Arab world. In 1963 a fifty-member parliament, elected by all male Kuwaiti citizens, replaced the constituent assembly.
Sheikh Abdullah died in 1965, and was succeeded by Sheikh Sabah Salem. He ruled until the end of 1977, whereupon Sheikh Jaber al-Ahmad took his place. During Sabah Salem's rule, Kuwait found its place among the Arab nations; like other Arabs, Kuwait favored Arab nationalism and a Palestinian state, but took a neutral stand between the radical states and the conservative ones. The government saw turbulent times, because the assembly was usually more liberal than the cabinet, and the two found it difficult to get along. Conditions grew so bad that the Emir suspended the constitution in 1976, dissolved the parliament, and muzzled the press. However, the ruling family wasn't ready to give up the idea of a Western-style government, so new elections under a revised constitution were held in 1981.
Meanwhile, revenues grew, and because the government chose to use its money wisely, a poor Kuwaiti became a contradiction in terms. In the Arab world Kuwait enjoyed the best education and the most advanced economy; from 1976 onwards, 10 percent of all state revenues were saved for future investments, instead of being spent immediately. These investments included considerable purchases of land and shares of companies overseas; by the late 1970s, this by itself generated an income of $9 billion a year. At home some of this went to build the first university in the region, scientific organizations like the Kuwait Institute of Scientific Research (KISR), and a local manufacturing industry.
The second time Kuwait tried a constitutional government, it found that life had gotten considerably more dangerous. First, many of the Palestinian refugees who fled Lebanon's civil war settled in Kuwait; as in Jordan and Lebanon, they became a destabilizing influence. Then in the mid-1980s, the worldwide slump in oil prices halved revenues and caused Kuwait's stock market to crash. Worst of all were the shockwaves from Iran and Iraq. As in Bahrein, Kuwait's large Shiite community supported the Iranian revolution, while the Sunni majority opposed it, leading to trouble between the two groups. Then during the Iran-Iraq War, Kuwait found itself at the eye of the storm; we saw in Chapter 17 how Iran marked Kuwait as an enemy for supporting Iraq, and how both the United States and the Soviet Union stepped in to protect Kuwait's ships. All this meant bitter debates in the parliament, and more bad relations between the executive and legislative branches of government. In 1986 the cabinet resigned, saying that it could no longer carry on its work, forcing the Emir to suspend the constitution and the press again. This time he waited until July 1990 to reinstate them, and instead of restoring the parliament, he created a National Assembly, a body that was part elected and part appointed, and gave it a four-year mandate to solve the problems which had caused the previous governments to collapse.
They never got a chance, because Iraq invaded a few weeks later. The Iraqi occupation of Kuwait, and the war to drive the Iraqis out, were covered in the previous chapter of this work, so we won't repeat the Persian Gulf War narrative here. After the war, those Kuwaitis who had fled the country began to return, and they found Kuwait City burned and looted; four-fifths of the oil wells had been sabotaged, leading to widespread environmental damage from oil spills and fires until they were capped. The total cost to rebuild the country was estimated at somewhere between $20 billion and $30 billion. Fortunately the Kuwaitis could pay for this, having $90 billion in financial reserves.
Rebuilding Kuwait's infrastructure proved to be relatively simple, compared with repairing Kuwaiti society. The Palestinians had been chased out, and many other foreign workers wouldn't come back, so Kuwait's population did not recover; as of 1998, it was 1.9 million. The Kuwaitis realized that they should learn how to work by themselves, but a future without help from the foreigners didn't look very attractive. At first martial law was necessary, but the Emir had promised from exile that the 1962 constitution would be made the law of the land again, once enough Kuwaitis had returned. However, he committed the blunder of holding onto power for too long; he didn't keep his promise until late 1992. Consequently, the dynasty that had acted so progressive in the 1960s now looked reactionary. Critics declared that the Sabah family was acting like the Bourbons in France, having learned nothing and forgotten nothing; human rights groups accused the government of staging unfair trials for Palestinian and Iraqi collaborators; some outsiders even asked if Kuwait deserved to be liberated.
Various crises in the Persian Gulf region remind the Kuwaitis how vulnerable they are, like the war scare of 1994 when Iraq massed troops near the border. For that reason, Kuwait still relies heavily on American forces for protection. This has caused some Arabs to ask if the Kuwaitis are still loyal to the Arab cause, or if they have become a protectorate of the West again. The country and its rulers may eventually regain the high status they enjoyed before the 1990 rape, but it will
Posted by cmasq8
at 1:37 PM
Saturday, 1 November 2003
home work POWER Point
hi that is my home work
Posted by cmasq8
at 8:07 PM
Wednesday, 22 October 2003
practice 2 How To Advertise a Product
How To Advertise a Product
There are many ways to advertise a product. First, you can use many different
means to advertise a product .So that it will be spread over the world and
mostly of customers will have an idea about it for example using a newspaper
,flyers, billboard ,radio and the TV .Second, you can give the customers
shows and full explication about the product .Then the customers will think
about this product and gravitate toward and buy it of course. Finally, you can
use the new advertisements ways like the Internet and billcars. That will be
distinctive and all customers talk about it. As u can see ,these are just a few
things to how advertise a product.
Posted by cmasq8
at 12:40 AM
Monday, 20 October 2003
Practice 1 Things That a Telecommuter Neads
Things That a Telecommuter Needs
Things That a
There are many things that telecommuter needs
.First, he/she has to get a fax .So that, he can receive and send letters and
important documents to other
offices and customers. Second ,he must have a telephone .So that he can contact
or talk to other companies or his
boss. Finally, he should have a pc and a modem to connect to the
Internet. So, he can communicate with the world and exchange work
quickly, easily with little little cost .As you can see, these are just a few things that
a telecommuter needs to do his
Posted by cmasq8
at 8:28 PM
Updated: Wednesday, 22 October 2003 12:06 AM
Wednesday, 15 October 2003
Kuwait is my Country
Kuwait is my country
Kuwait is my country
Many people doesn't have any idea about my country ,if
I ask somebody specially from the west or any other country he would be
surprized asking what Kuwait is . , where is it ?
how many people are over there ?,what do they believe in?, what's the
traditional outfit they werer? and about Basic Data
Ok .As u can see, I will give u full
information to get an idea about Kuwait .
Let's start ....
Formal Name State of Kuwait (Dawlat al
Short Form Kuwait (Al Kuwayt)
Capital Kuwait City
Government Type Constitutional monarchy
Date of Independence June 19, 1961
Constitution Approved and promulgated
November 11, 1962
Executive Power exercised by the Amir
through Council of Ministers (frequently referred to as "the government") headed
by a prime minister who is chosen by the Amir after traditional consultations
Amir Sheikh Jaber Al-Ahmed Al-Jaber Al-Sabah
Prime Minister Sheikh Saad Abdullah Al-Salim
Judicial System Based on the Egyptian
model, it is an amalgam of Islamic law, English common law, and the Ottoman
civil code. Personal and family matters such as divorce and inheritance are
governed by separate family courts operating under religious laws, each
religious tradition (e.g. Sunni, Shia, Christian) having its own set of laws and
Legislature Unicameral National
Assembly (Majlis al-Umma) of 50 members elected by popular vote to serve 4-year
Political Parties Not permitted, though
there are formal political groupings that back MPs and candidates
Suffrage Male citizens 21 and older.
With the median age below the age of majority, the national constituency is
approximately 113,000, making up roughly 15 percent of Kuwaiti nationals. To
avoid politicizing certain groups tied to the government, neither judges, nor
the uniformed services (i.e. police and military personnel) vote.
Land Area 17,818 square kilometers
(6,880 square miles), including the Kuwaiti share of the Neutral Zone (2,590 sq
Topography Almost entirely flat desert.
Climate Although summers are long, hot,
and mostly dry, with daily temperatures between 43? and 47?C (110? and 120?F)
and high humidity in August. The fall and spring are pleasant and mild; winters
are short and relatively cool. Sandstorms in June and July; some rain, mainly in
winter and spring.
Boundaries Border with Saudi Arabia set
in 1922 Treaty of Al-Uqair, which also established Kuwait-Saudi Arabia Neutral
Zone. In 1966 Kuwait and Saudi Arabia agreed to divide the Neutral Zone; the
partitioning agreement making each country responsible for administration in its
portion was signed in December 1969.
Iraq accepted the mutual border in
1963, based on earlier agreements. Historical border definitively demarcated by
a UN commission 1992; Iraq accepted the demarcation in November 1994. Click
here for more information on
Nationality Kuwaiti(s); adjectival
Population (total) 2.274 million (June
30th 1999; Source: Public Authority for Civil Info.)
Kuwaitis 798,200 (35.1% of total)
Non-Kuwaitis 1.476 million (64.9% of
Urban population 97.1% (1996)
Adult Literacy Rate 85% (age 15+)
Male/Female Ratio: 1.57 Males for every
Religion Most Kuwaitis are Sunni
Muslims. About 25% of citizens are Shia Muslims. Freedom of religion is
guaranteed by law and foreigners practice Islam and Christianity as well as
other religions. There are several Christian churches in Kuwait.
Languages Arabic (official). English is
We wear Dishdasha it's like a a long
You can chick
her to see it
Currency Kuwaiti Dinar (KD) = 1,000
fils. Exchange rate on June 30, 1999: US$1.00 = KD0.306
Time 3 hours ahead of GMT; 8 hours
ahead of EST.
Country Code ++(965) Kuwait has no city
(Note: International Direct Dialing Codes, which must be dialed before
the country code and number, differ depending on where the call is placed. From
the U.S., it is "011")
Weights and Measures Metric system and
Public Holidays Thursday and Friday are
the official weekly days off. Most banks and the Kuwait Petroleum Corporation
and most of its affiliate companies take Friday and Saturday off.
Holidays include New Year's Day
(January 1), Kuwait National Day (February 25), and Liberation Day (February
26), Prophet's Birthday, the Ascension of the Prophet, and the Hijra New Year.
For Eid Al-Fitr, the "breaking of the fast"' at the end of Ramadan, there is
usually a three-day holiday. For Eid Al-Adha there is usually a four-day
holiday. ( Note: The dates of religious holidays change yearly, because Kuwait
uses the Islamic or hijra calendar, dating from the year 622 AD and based on the
lunar year, which is roughly 11 days shorter than the Gregorian year.)
This is thee map of my country
I think that is enough and full idea of Kuwait .
thanks for visit my weblog
Kuwait Information Office .All Rights Reserved
Posted by cmasq8
at 11:10 PM
Updated: Wednesday, 22 October 2003 1:07 AM
Tuesday, 14 October 2003
Arabic Gulf(((home work))
There are many interesting things we can do at Arabin Gulf .first, we can go to the island in Arabin Gulf to swim with our friends .This is very nice and healthy activity. Second, we can use a dive equipment to dive .The Arabin Gulf have a lot of fish and a nice coral. Finally, we can take a jetboat from any islands. This is a wonderful trip and so lovely way to see the Arabin Gulf .As you can see, there are many things to do in Arabin Gulf.
Posted by cmasq8
at 8:03 PM
Updated: Tuesday, 14 October 2003 9:53 PM
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